Applications 1-5


Cora Berndt-Schoemaker Bc 1
1 Noorder Dierenpark ZOO Emmen, The Netherlands

Organisation Food management in the Noorder Dierenpark ZOO Emmen is based on a centralised system, in preparation, handling and distribution. All this takes place in the central food centre. There is a team of four people of which three are working full time and one part-timer. This team consists of a part-time nutritionist, a section-head, and two assistants. These people are strictly related to the food-centre. Hygiene One of the major disadvantages of the system is the risk of contamination through the zoo. This is the reason for having hygiene as a top priority. This is being carried out by maintaining a strict separation of vegetarian and non-vegetarian products in preparing the diets, by strict instructions in handling, storage and routines and of course by thorough cleaning methods. Logistics One of the advantages of the system is to be able to manage and control all needs and deliveries. After preparation, the diets are being distributed with a electric van to all sections in the zoo and at the same time dirty trays are being collected. These are cleaned with a dishwasher. Administration All records of diets and recipes are processed by a computer and put on screens in the food centre. Any changes in diets can only be carried out after permission of the nutritionist. Recipes are changed according to information written by the (head)keepers, veterinary and zoological staff. The recipes contain information about the quantity and handling of food, the number of animals involved, the products being used and where etc. Analysis and dietetics all analyses are carried out with the help of the software program Animal Nutritionist. Specific health problems related to nutrition can only be sufficiently investigated with a sound administration. In most zoos, this is a major issue, as a lot of information on diets and their consumption is not sufficiently recorded. A professional approach of all the diets is very important because the first thing looked at in case an animal is suffering health problems is nutrition. To be more efficient all zoos should carry out research in close cooperation.


Peer G.H. Bijker Dr.1 and Joeke Nijboer BsC2
1 Department of the Science of Food of Animal Origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80175, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2 Rotterdam Zoo, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Quality assurance in general, and in particular veterinary and zoo technical care, are nowadays an integral part of the policy of zoos. Modernization and renovation of zoos is taking place rapidly. Nevertheless, unfortunately the importance of production and preparation of safe food with regard to the health of the animals, as well as establishing a hygienic image through food quality assurance, is underestimated by many. In cooperation with the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht, two manuals have been produced with the purpose of providing an analytical framework, suitable for implementation of basic food safety and food quality control. These contain priorities and protocols regarding purchase of safe food, prevention of contamination, decontamination of products and equipment, and the change of attitudes required to reach high hygiene standards. The project has been set up based mainly on three concepts: - International organization for standardization norms for the setting up of systems for quality control (NEN-ISO 9000 series) - Good Hygienic Practices - The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept (HACCP) It can be concluded that when working with these concepts and protocols zoo personnel are able to change attitudes towards better hygiene standards, resulting in lower risks of possible contaminations of animals, personnel and public.


Jean Dhont1
1 Laboratory for Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center University Gent, Rozier, 44, 9000 Gent, Belgium

Over the past few decades aquaculture has evolved from a traditional and risky occupation to a mature bio-industry. Initially focussing on a few promising species such as salmon and penaeid shrimp, it has strengthened its viability through systematically solving each bottleneck that occurred as the sophistication of the industry increased. First, purely biological questions needed to be addressed: what are the animal’s zootechnical requirements (temperatures range, light regimes, water quality parameter etc.); what does the animal feed on? Later, with increasing intensification, factors such as hygiene and broodstock management became important. Nowadays, cutting-edge aquaculture-ventures can only survive competition through rigid business management and care for environmental sustainability. Since zoo biology or aquariophily mainly deals with rare or non-commercial species they could be faced with similar problems as early aquaculture trials. In that respect larval nutrition will surely be one of the first obstacles to be encountered. Due to obvious biological similarities, aquarium holders can learn a lot form aquaculturists’ experience. The purpose of this presentation is to summarise the advantages, the use and production techniques of cultured Artemia as larval food for fish and shrimp larvae. First it is argued why, or better, under what circumstances it is advantageous to use adult Artemia, and why to culture Artemia rather than to use frozen Artemia biomass. Then, an overview of culture requirements and techniques is discussed, including methods for improving nutritional quality (enrichment) and harvest and storage techniques.


Andrea L. Fidgett M.Sc.1
1 Division of Environmental & Evolutionary Biology University of Glasgow, Graham Kerr Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, United Kingdom

Egg production is a demanding process for many birds. Many field studies suggest that the weight of the clutch laid relates to the local food supply, which suggests that food availability might limit egg production; some experimental evidence from supplementary feeding trials support this. Most supplementary feeding trials assume energy is limiting, but field trials with gulls and tits in which the diet quality was varied, have shown that availability of certain nutrients may also limit egg production. Protein quality could, for some species, be important because of the unusual amino acid balance of eggs. Birds might also use body stores of protein to assist with egg production, especially in the supply of limiting amino acids. As feeding trials with zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata and gulls suggest, the muscle condition that a female has established before the start of breeding can be an important factor in determining egg production.


Werner Kaumanns Dr.1, Karen Hampe1, and Christoph Schwitzer2
1 Deutsches Primatenzentrum, AG Haltungsbiologie, Kellner Weg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, 2 Zoologischer Garten Köln, Riehlerstraße 173, 50735 Köln, Germany

"Primate nutrition" on an applied level in Europe refers to more than 20000 primates in about 200 species and subspecies kept in more than 600 institutions. About 85% of the primates are kept in zoos, 15% in research institutions. The latter tend to keep a small spectrum of species only and to feed a more or less standardised diet, which mostly includes a large proportion of commercially available pellets. Contrary to this, zoos rely on fruits, vegetables, insects, various gruels, etc. The diets they feed usually are designed according to local know-how. The results of an evaluation of about 200 diets fed in 25 zoos and referring to 50 primate species indicate that within a zoo diets tend o be similar for all species. Between the zoos however diets differ considerably even within species in particular with reference to supplements like vitamins and minerals. The sample of diets analysed suggests, that they are not based on generally accepted standards or recommendations and that in a few cases only the feeding ecology of the corresponding species seems to be considered consequently. This situation possibly reflects that knowledge about nutritional requirements of primates is still poor and must be developed. The fact that most primates live and have to be kept in social units in which the members compete for access to food leads to feeding schedules, which try to avoid social conflicts by offering large amounts of food. Individual food intake thus is neither known nor controllable. The long-term effects of this need to be considered. Obesity problems and a tendency to early reproduction in some of the larger populations point to possible negative effects. Feeding schedules increasingly are used to provide "enrichment" and to stimulate more of a species behavioural repertoire. This adds another aspect to primate nutrition, which needs to be integrated. In order to deal with these and other implications of primate nutrition a complex approach is required which fits with the conservation oriented goals of captive propagation. It is suggested to work out a feeding ecology" of captive primates, which integrates physiological, behavioural and environmental aspects.