Effect of live yeast culture supplementation on hindgut microbial communities and their polysaccharidase and glycoside hydrolase activities in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet
Four cecum and right ventral colon-fistulated horses were assigned in a 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed a high-fiber or a high-starch diet with or without live yeast.
The yeast diet contained 10 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; CBS 493.94) containing 4.5 x 109 cfu/g. The high-fiber (HF) and high-starch (HS) diets consisted of pelleted feeds and long wheat straw (18.0 and 3.5 g of DM•kg–1 of BW•d–1, respectively) given in 2 equal meals to provide an NDF:starch ratio of 3.5 and 1.0, respectively. After a 21-d adaptation period intestinal contents were collected 4 h after the morning meal on d 23 and 25 to determine bacterial and SC concentrations. Polysaccharidase activities (CMCase, xylanase, amylase) and activities of glycoside hydrolases ( -L-arabinosidase, β-D-cellobiosidase, β-D-glucosidase, β-D-xylosidase) were determined in liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) and solid-adherent bacteria (SAB) isolated from both compartments. Lactobacilli were increased in the cecum (P = 0.012) and colon (P = 0.086) when starch intake increased, whereas total anaerobes, cellulolytics, and streptococci did not change in either compartment. In yeast-supplemented horses, SC concentrations were greater in cecum (4.4 x 106 cfu/mL) than in right-ventral colon (5.6 x 104 cfu/mL) and did no change with diet. Concentrations of lactobacilli and lactic-acid utilizers were greater (P = 0.099 and 0.067, respectively) in the cecum but remained similar in the colon of SC-supplemented horses. The CMCase activities of SAB were not affected by diet. Colonic xylanase activities of SAB were reduced (P = 0.046) by starch addition, but no change was seen in the cecum. All SAB glucoside hydrolase activities in the cecum and colon, except β-D-xylosidase in the cecum, were decreased when starch intake was increased. The LAB CMCase (P = 0.049 in the colon) and xylanase (P = 0.021 in the cecum; P < 0.001 in the colon) activities decreased with starch intake. No effect of starch on LAB or SAB amylase activity was observed. Addition of SC improved SAB CMCase in the cecum (P = 0.019) and colon (P = 0.037) as well as β-D-cellobiosidase (P = 0.002) and β-D-glucosidase (P = 0.041) in the cecum. Only xylanase in the cecum (P = 0.015) and β-D-xylosidase in the cecum (P = 0.028) were improved with SC, whereas colonic LAB -amylase activity was significantly decreased (P = 0.046). Most enzymes involved in plant cell wall digestion were increased after SC addition. This fact may contribute to explain a better digestion of fiber that has been previously reported in SC-supplemented horses.
Title: Effect of live yeast culture supplementation on hindgut microbial communities and their polysaccharidase and glycoside hydrolase activities in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet
Authors: J.-P. Jouany, B. Medina, G. Bertin and V. Julliand